Hidimar da Charles Henry Robinson ya yi wa harshen Hausa

Daga Jaafar Jaafar 

Shekaru 130 da suka gabata, a ranar Juma’a 26 ga watan Yunin shekarar 1891, John Alfred Robinson, wani Bature malami a Christ’s College ta Cambridge, ya mutu a garin Lokoja.

Wannan Bature, wanda ya fahimci Hausa daidai gwargwado, ya na cikin mutanen da su ka fara fahimtar amfanin nazarin harshen Hausa.

Watanni kadan bayan rasuwar wannan Bature, sai wasu Turawa suka hadu a wani otal da ke birnin London mai suna Charing Cross Hotel, don tattauna yadda za’a cigaba da aikin da John ya fara a kan harshen Hausa don “fara nazarin yaren a doron kimiyya da fassara littattafan addini da wasu lillattafai masu amfani, don karuwar Bahaushe”.

Turawan da su ka hada wannan kungiya ta Hausa sun hada da Professor Max Müller da Professor Peile da Professor Margoliouth da Professor Robertson Smith.

Sauran sun hada da Mr Macgregor Laird da Mr Francis Galton da Mr FRS da Major Darwin da wakilin hukumar West African Enterprise kuma gwamnan Royal Niger Company, wato Lord Abedare da kuma mataimakinsa Sir George Taubman Goldie.

Wadannan Turawa sun yi shawarar nemo mutumin da zai tafi kasar Hausa ya yi cudanya da Hausawa, kuma ya nazarci yarensu da al’adunsu.

Bayan an yi shekara ana shela a jaridu da mujallu na kasar Birtaniya, kwamatin ya samu takardardu daga wadanda ke sha’awar wannan aiki. Amma sai dai duk wadanda su ka nema, ba su samu cancantar da kwamatin ke bukata ba.

A ranar Asabar 5 ga watan Nuwambar 1892, wasika ta iske Charles Henry Robinson yana kan aiki a garin Truro na shiyyar Cornwall da ke kasar England, cewa ana neman amincewar a saka sunansa a cikin wadanda za’a tantance a matsayin dalibin Hausa (Hausa studentship).

Bayan da Robinson ya yi nazarin wasikar, sai ya ga cewa ya dace da ya karasa aikin da dan’uwansa ya fara. Shi Charles kani ne ga John, wancan Bature da ya rasu a Lokoja.

Bayan kwamatin ya tattauna da shi don tabbatar da dacewarsa, daga bisani aka tabbatar da shi a matsayin dalibin Hausa na farko.

Ka’idodin aikin sun hada da fara zuwa Kano da wasu manyan garuruwan kasar Hausa, amma saboda yanayin rashin sabo da yanayin kasar Hausa, sai aka bada shawarar ya fara zuwa birnin Tripoli na kasar Libya ko birnin Tunis na Tunisia don fara koyon Hausa da Larabci a can, daga bisani sai ya zarce kasar Hausa.

A ranar Lahadi 30 ga watan Aprilun shekarar 1893 ya baro kasar Ingila zuwa birnin Tripoli, kuma ya isa birnin cikin kwanaki 40.

A wancan zamanin, akwai kimanin mutane 36,000 a birnin Tripoli, kuma daga cikin su akwai kimanin mutane 600 da ke jin yaren Hausa. A cewar Robinson, akasarin masu jin Hausar sun zo ne a matsayin bayi ko barori, kana kuma akwai mahajjata da hanya ta biyo da su, su ka yada zango. Ya ce akwai dubunnen maniyyaata aikin Haji daga kasar Hausa da ke yada zango a wannan gari kafin su wuce garin Suakin da ke Sudan don tsallaka tekun Maliya zuwa Jeddah.

Cudanyar Robinson da irin wadannan maniyyata, ya sa ya fara koyon Harshen Hausa. Amma bayan ya yi wata shida a birnin Tripoli, sai ya fahimci cewa ratsa Sahara don zuwa kasar Hausa ba abu ne mai sauki ba.

Garin Tripoli a lokacin yana karkashin daular Turkiyya, kuma Pasha (gwaman garin) ya karbi ‘oda’ daga babban birnin daular wato Constantinople (wanda a yanzu ake kira Istanbul) da kada ya bari Turawa su wuce mil 10 daga garin. Dalili kuwa shi ne, kabilun da ke kan hanyar, musanman Abzinawa su na farma Turawa.

Da Robinson ya fahimci tarnakin keta Sahara ta birnin Tripoli zuwa kasar Hausa, sai ya tafi birnin Tunis don gwadawa ta can.

Saukar sa ke da wuya a garin Gabes tare da shi da Mr Harris, sai ya sayi rakuma guda biyu. Haka ya yi sati uku yana zarya a wata hamada da ke tsakanin kudancin birnin Tunis da Algiers.

Bayan da ya gama rangadin, sai ya dawo birnin Tunis. Daga nan ne sai ya koma kasar Ingila ya yi wata shida yana koyon aikin likitanci (don shiryawa zuwa kasar Hausa), kana kuma ya halarci tarurruka na Hausa Association da a ka kira.

Robinson ya sake komawa dai birnin Tunis inda su ka yi tsawon wata 6 tare da shi da Dr. TJ Tonkin (abokin tafiyarsa zuwa Kano) su na koyon harshen Hausa da Larabci.

Da su ka sake fahimtar cewa tsallaka Sahara abu ne mai tsananin wuya, a watan Yunin shekarar 1894, sai su ka sake dawowa kasar Ingila don zuwa kasar Hausa ta teku, zuwa kogin Niger. Dab da barin Tripoli, Robinson ya kara samun abokin tafiya wato Mr John Bonner, wanda ya koyi Larabci a dalilin zamansa na shekara biyu a Tripoli.

Da ya koma kasar England, an yi taro sau biyu na Hausa Association. Taron farko an yi shi ranar Talata 3 ga watan Yuli a dakin taro na London Chamber of Commerce. Taron wanda Sir A. Rollit ya jagoranta, ya samu bayanai daga Mr HH Johnson da Mr HM Stanley wadanda su ka ba da bayanai akan haduwar su da Hausawa.

Mr Johnson ya ce: “A yawoce-yawocen da na yi a kasashen Africa, na fi haduwa da Bahaushe akan kowacce kabila, kuma harshen Hausa ya fi kowanne yare yaduwa a arewacin Africa. Saboda haka, duk kuwa kasar da ta ke son mallakar kwaryar Africa (Central Soudan), to kuwa dole sai ta mallaki Bahaushe… Ina fatan wata rana za a samu farfesoshi a jami’unmu na fannin Hausa da Swahili.”

Shi kuwa Mr Stanley ya yi magana ne a kan wani Bahaushe da ya hadu da shi a kasar Congo. Ya ce fikirar Bahaushe da son littafi dabam ta ke da yadda jahilci da camfe-camfe su ka yi wa kabilun Congo katutu.

A taro na biyu, wanda aka yi a ranar Juma’a 13 ga watan Yuli a dakin taro na Liverpool Town Hall, Sir George Taubman Goldie da sauran mahalarta taron sun yi jawabi.

Bayan wannan taro na biyu ne, gari na wayewa Robinson da shi da Dr Tonkin da Mr Bonner da Salam (wani Balarabe mai hidimta ma su) su ka hau jirgin ruwa mai suna SS Loanda don zuwa gabar kogin Niger.

(Idan na samu lokaci, zan kawo labarin zuwan Robinson Kano da haduwar sa da Sarkin Kano Alu da kuma yadda wannan Bature ya rubuta ‘dictionary’ na Hausa zuwa Turanci na farko)

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