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Home Sashen Hausa Afghanistan: Su wane ne ƴan Taliban?

Afghanistan: Su wane ne ƴan Taliban?

 

Myakan Taliban da kauyawa sun halarci taron rattaba hannu kan yarjejeniyar zaman lafiya tsakaninsu da Amurka a yankin Laghman a gundumar Alingar a 2 ga watan Maris , 2020.

Mayaƙan Taliban a yankin Laghman a watan Maris din 2020. Suna sake farfadowa a lokacin da Amurka ke shirin janyewa daga kasar

A shekarar 2011 ne dakarun da Amurka ta jagoranta suka hamɓarar da Taliban daga mulki, amma a hankali ƙungiyar ta ci gaba da farfaɗo da ƙarfinta tun a lokacin sannan tana sake ƙwace iko da yankin.

A yayin da Amurka take shirin kammala janyewa daga ƙasar a ranar 11 ga watan Satumba, bayan shafe kusan shekara 20 na yaƙi, ƴan ƙungiyar Taliban na mamaye sansanonin sojoji da garuruwa da ƙauyuka, da zagaye manyan birane, inda suke sanya tsoro a zuƙatan mutane na ganin cewa za su iya hamɓarar da gwamnatin.

Ƙungiyar ta hau teburin tattaunawa kai tsaye da Amurka a shekarar 2018, sannan a watan Fabrairun 2020 ɓangarorin biyu sun ƙulla yarjejeniya a Doha, wacce ta sanya Amurka daukar alƙawarin janyewa daga Afghanistan, da kuma hana Taliban kai wa dakarun Amurkar hare-hare.

Sauran alƙawuran sun hada da hana ƙungiyar al-Qaeda ko sauran mayaƙan sa kai yin aikace-aikacensu a yankunan da take iko da su da kuma ci gaba da tattaunawa kan yarjejeniyar zaman lafiya.

Amma a shekarar da ta biyo baya, Taliban ta ci gaba da kai hare-hare kan dakarun tsaron Afghanistan da ma fararen hula.

A yanzu da Amurka ke shirin barin ƙasar, ƙungiyar na sake farfaɗo da ayyukanta da kuma ƙara kutsawa a faɗin ƙasar.

Neman mulki

Taliban, wato ɗalibai kenan a yaren Pashto, ta kafu ne a farkon shekarun 1990 a arewacin Pakistan sakamakon janyewar dakarun Tarayyar Sabiyet daga Afghanistan.

An yi amannar cewa masu fafutuka ƴan ƙabilar Pashtun sun fara bayyana ne a wasu tarukan addini – waɗanda yawanci Saudiyya ce ke ɗaukar nauyinsu – waɗanda suke yin kira ga aƙidar Sunni.

Alƙawarin da Taliban ta yi – a yankunan Pashtun da ke tsakanin Pakistan da Afghanistan – sun yi ne kan dawo da zaman lafiya da tsaro, tare da wanzar da shari’ar Musuluncin idan har suka samu mulki.

Afghanistan sun yi maza sun faɗaɗa ikonsu daga kudu maso yammacin Afghanistan. A watan Satumban 1995 suka kame yankin Herat, da ke kan iyakar Iran.

‘Yaki da ta’addanci’: Ko ƙasashen Yamma sun daina tura sojojinsu ƙasashen waje?

Ƙungiyar ƴan ta’addan da ‘ta fi gwamnati samun kuɗi’

Sannan shekara guda cif bayan nan sai suka kame ikon Kabul, babban birnin Afghanistan, inda suka hamɓarar da Shugaba Burhanuddin Rabbani – ɗaya daga cikin jagororin da suka samar da ƙungiyar Afghan mujahideen, wato masu ikirarin jihadin ƙasar da suka fafata da Tarayyar Sobiyet kan mamayar da ta so yi.

Zuwa shekarar 1998, Taliban ta samu yin iko da kusan kashi 90 cikin 100 na Afghanistan.

Da farko ƴan Afghanistan sun yi maraba da Taliban a lokacin da ta bayyana, saboda yadda suka gaji da al’amuran mujahideen na faɗace-faɗace a ƙasar bayan fatattakar dakarun Sobiyet.

Sun yi farin jini ne da fari saboda irin yadda suka fara yaƙi da cin hanci da rashawa, da magance matsalar rashin bin doka da kuma yadda suka dinga gyara hanyoyin da ke ƙarƙashin ikonsu ta yadda suka bunƙasa kasuwanci.

Amma Taliban sun kuma gabatar da tare da goyon bayan horo irin wanda Musulunci ya tanada ga masu laifi – kamar zartar da hukuncin kisa ga waɗanda suka aiwatar da kisan kai da mazinata, da kuma cire hannayen wadanda aka kama da laifin sata, a bainar jama’a.

An dinga umartar maza da su dinga barin gemu sannan dole ne mata su dinga rufe fuskarsu da niƙabi ko burka.

Taliban sun kuma haramta kallon talabijin da jin waƙe-waƙe da zuwa sinima, sun kuma hana yara mata ƴan shekara 10 zuwa sama zuwa makaranta.

An yi ta zargin Taliban da aikata abubuwan take haƙƙin ƴan adam da dama da kuma cin zarafin mutane.

Wani babban misali shi ne abin da ya faru a shekarar 2001, a lokacin da Taliban ta rushe wasu fitattun gumakan addinin Budha a tsakiyar Afghanistan, duk da Allah-wadan da ƙasashen duniya suka yi.

Mayakan Taliban na iko da babbar hanyar Kandahar-Herat a kusa da birnin Kandahar, ranar 31 ga watan Oktoban 2001

Mayakan Taliban na iko da babbar hanyar Kandahar-Herat a kusa da birnin Kandahar, ranar 31 ga watan Oktoban 2001

Pakistan dai ta sha nesanta kanta daga batun cewa ita ce ke goyon bayan Taliban, amma akwai ɗan kokonto kan cewa da yawan ƴan Afghanistan da suka fara shiga ƙungiyar a Pakistan suka yi karatu a makarantun addini da ake kira madrassa.

Sannan kuma Pakistan na ɗaya daga cikin ƙasashe uku a duniya da suka amince da Taliban a lokacin da take shugabantar Afghanistan, wato ita da Saudiyya da ƙasar Haɗaɗɗiyar Daular Larabawa.

Kuma ita ce ƙasar da ta zama ta ƙarshe wajen kawo ƙarshen alaƙar diflomasiyyarta da ƙungiyar.

Akwai lokacin da sai da Taliban ta yi barazanar kawo rashin zaman lafiya a Pakistan a yankunan da suke ƙarƙashin ikonta a arewa maso yamma.

Ɗaya daga cikin manyan hare-haren Taliban a Pakistan da ƙasashen duniya suka yi tur da su sun faru a watan Oktoban 2012 ne, a lokacin da suka harbi wata yarinya ƴar makaranta Malala Yousafzai, a lokacin da take kan hanyar komawa gida daga garin Mingora.

Wani gagarumin mayar da martani da sojoji suka yi shekara biyu bayan kisan kiyashin da aka yi a Peshawar ya matuƙar rage karfin faɗa ajin da ƙungiyar ke da shi a Pakistan.

A ƙalla wasu manyan ƴan Taliban na Pakistan uku aka kashe a wasu hare-haren jiragen sama marasa matuƙa a 2013, da suka haɗa da shugaban ƙungiyar Hakimullah Mehsud.

Mayaƙan Taliban sun harbi Malala Yousafzai wata yarinya ƴar makaranta a watan Oktoban 2012

Mayaƙan Taliban sun harbi Malala Yousafzai wata yarinya ƴar makaranta a watan Oktoban 2012

Hankalin duniya ya koma kan Taliban a Afghanistan a yayin da aka kai hari kan Cibiyar Kasuwanci Ta Duniya a New York, ranar 11 ga watan Satumban 2011.

An zargi Taliban da bai wa wadanda ake zargi da kai harin mafaka, wato Osama Bin Laden da ƙungiyarsa ta al-Qaeda.

A ranar 7 ga watan Oktoban 2001, wata rundunar sojin hadaka da Amurka ke jagoranta ta ƙaddamar da hare-hare a Afghanistan, sannan a makon farko na Disamba mulkin Taliban ya zo ƙarshe.

Shugaban ƙungiyar a wancan lokacin, Mullah Mohammad Omar da sauran manyan jagororin ƙungiyar da suka haɗa da Bin Laden, sun tsere ta yadda ba a kama su ba duk da gagarumar farautarsu da ba a taɓa yin irinta ba da aka ƙaddamar a duniya.

Rahotanni sun ce manyan ƴan Taliban da dama sun nemi mafaka a birnin Quetta na Pakistan, inda daga can suke bai wa Taliban umarni. Amma gwamnatin Pakistan ta musanta batun cewa akwai cibiyar Taliban mai suna “Quetta Shura” a ƙasar.

Duk da yawan dakarun ƙasashen waje, a hankali Taliban ta ƙara samun ikonta tare da faɗaɗa faɗa a jinta a Afghanistan, inda ta sa yankunan ƙasar da dama suka kasance cikin rashin tsaro, sannan rikice-rikice ya ƙara samun wajen zama a ƙasar irin wanda ba a taɓa gani batun shekarar 2001.

Taliban sun kai hare-hare da dama Kabul, kuma a watan Satumban 2012 ƙungiyar ta kai wani gagarumin hari kan sansanin Nato.

Kwamandan Taliban Hakimullah Mehsud ya yi wa ‘yan jarida jawabi a yankin Mamouzai

An kashe shugaban Taliban na Pakistan Hakimullah Mehsud a wani harin sama da Amurka ta kai a 2013

An fara samun kyakkyawan fatan cimma yarjejeniya a shekarar 2013, a lokacin da Taliban ta sanar da shirye-shiryen buɗe ofishi a Qatar. Amma akwai matuƙar rashin yarda daga kowane ɓangare, kuma an ci gaba da rikici sosai.

A watan Agustan 2015, Taliban ta amsa cewa labarin mutuwar Mullah Omar – wanda ya mutu sakamakon rashin lafiya da ya sha fama da ita a wani asibiti a Pakistan – fiye da shekara biyu.

Wata ɗaya bayan nan, sai ƙungiyar ta ce ta jingine rikicin cikin gida tare da haɗa kai wajen mara wa sabon shugaba baya wato Mullah Mansour, wanda a baya shi ne mataimakin Mullah Omar.

A kusan wannan lokacin, Taliban ta ƙwace iko da wani babban birnin yanki a karo na farko tun bayan da aka yi nasara a kanta a 2001, inda ikon birnin Kunduz mai muhimmanci ya koma ƙarƙashinta.

An kashe Mullah Mansour a wani harin sama na jirgi maras matuƙi da Amurka ta kai a watan Mayun 2016, tare da maye gurbinsa da mataimakinsa Mawlawi Hibatullah Akhundzada, wanda ya ci gaba da jan ragamar ƙungiyar.

Ƙirga kwanakin janyewa

A shekarar da ta biyo bayan yarjejeniyar Amurka da Taliban a watan Fabrairun 2020 – wadda aka shafe tsawon lokaci ana tattaunawa – ya bayyana cewa Taliban ta sauya dabarun kai hare-haren birane da kuma sansanonin soji zuwa kisan gillar da ya dinga firgita fararen hula a Afghanistan.

Hare-haren da aka dinga kai wa kan ƴan jarida da alƙalai da masu fafutukar zaman lafiya da matan da ke riƙe da muƙamai – sun sa an gane cewa ƴan Taliban ba su sauya daga tsattsaurar aƙidarsu ba, salo kawai suka sauya.

Duk da irin matuƙar damuwar da jami’an gwamnatin Afghanistan suka dinga nunawa kan gazawar ƙasar a yaƙi da Taliban ba tare da taimakon ƙasashen duniya ba, sabon shugaban Amurka Joe Biden ya sanar a watan Afrilun 2021 cewa dukkan dakarun Amurka za su bar ƙasar zuwa ranar 11 ga watan Satumba – bayan shafe shekara 20 tun bayan kai hari kan Cibiyar Kasuwanci Ta Duniya.

Bayan shafe shekara 20 ana fafata yaƙi da ƙasa mai ƙarfin faɗa a ji ta duniya, Taliban ta fara ƙwace iko da manyan yankuna, da barazanar sake hamɓarar da gwamnati a Kabul a daidai lokacin da Amurka ke janye dakarunta.

A yanzu ana ganin ƙungiyar ta fi yawan mayaƙa fiye da kowane lokaci tun bayan kifar da su a 2001 – inda take da mayaƙa 85,000, a cewar wani ƙiyasi da Ƙungiyar Tsaro ta Nato ta yi a baya-bayan nan.

Zai yi wahala a ƙiyasta yawan yankunan da suke iko da su, saboda yadda ake karɓa da ƙwace gundumomi tsakaninsu da gwamnati, amma wani ƙiyasi na kwanan nan ya ce suna da kashi uku da kashi biyar na ƙasar a ƙarƙashin ikonsu.

Samun ikon nasu yana ƙaruwa sosai fiye ma da yadda wasu ke tsoron hakan. Janar Austin Miller, kwamandan da ke jagorantar rundunar sojin hadaka da Amurka ke jagoranta, ya yi gargaɗi a watan Yuni cewa ƙasar na iya shiga yanayin yaƙin basasa, wanda ya kira hakan da cewa “abin damuwa ne ga duniya.”

Wasu bayanan sirri da Amurka ta tattara a wannan watan ya nuna cewa gwamnatin Afghanistan za ta rushe cikin wata shida da ficewar sojojin Amurka daga ƙasar.

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